A glimpse of referencing and its types

Academic writing requires referencing. It’s an ethical approach that meets academic behaviour criteria for researchers and scholars. Its purpose is to recognise the original source of ideas & work which is not by the author, point the audience to the original documents so they can determine independently whether attested sources support the author’s argument as written, and help distinguish the author’s own thoughts and ideas from those of their sources. For academic problems, you may refer to assignment writing websites where you can hire the best assignment experts.

Referencing comprises two basic elements;

  • An in-text marker that tells the reader who said what;
  • A reference list with full citations for all document sources.


Types of Referencing styles

Various reference techniques have different rules to follow. Students must remember a particular set of criteria that makes reference styles difficult. Students should know academic referencing techniques. Academic reference styles may be further classified by how sources are recorded. It has three main types:


Parenthetical styles

Parenthetical citations appear before a sentence’s period. Harvard, APA, MLA, etc., follow this format.


Documentary note styles

It identifies references as endnotes and footnotes. Superscript numerals indicate in-text citations. Footnotes give entire reference details on the same page. When listed after the work, the same references are endnotes. Oxford and MHRA are popular reference styles.


Numbered styles

This style uses Arabic numerals. In this style, we write numerals in square brackets. The numbered reference list is supplied after the whole text.

Some students might find it difficult to add references to their assignments. Hence, there is online assignment help that assists university students with every academic difficulty.

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Let’s explore the primary academic referencing formats.


IEEE referencing style

IEEE created this citation format.format is utilised in technical publications like IT, engineering, etc.


MLA referencing style

MLA created the citation style. Current academics utilise MLA 8th edition reference style. Students, as well as researchers, are more comfortable using MLA referencing. The structure adheres to parenthetical reference conventions because the in-text citation includes the page number & author’s name.


AMA referencing style 

Medical articles employ this reference style. AMA means “American Medical Association.” This format references in-text using superscript numbers.


APA referencing style

APA created the citation style. Because of its simplicity and effectiveness, many other areas are using this style of referencing. In academics, the 7th APA version is used. Authors that are comfortable with parenthetical references use it.


Chicago referencing style

Chicago Manual of Style has format specifications. There are two Chicago styles: A and B. Authors may use Chicago A for endnotes and footnotes. Chicago B style in-text citations note the year and authors in parentheses.


Vancouver referencing style

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors gave the Vancouver style to academics. Medical research publications follow the Vancouver referencing style. Text references are numbered. The reference list is numbered to match the in-text citations.


Turabian referencing style

Turabian’s style is inspire by Chicago’s. Students utilise the Turabian style for academic papers as it is easy to use. Turabian has two variants, like Chicago. Author-date and documentary notes are reference styles.


Harvard referencing style

Harvard is mostly use in economics. Multiple organisations need customised variations of these reference styles despite a lack of clear norms. British Standard Institution, Australian government publishing service, etc., need Harvard citations.

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