Glial Fibrillary acidic protein, commonly known as GFAP, is a type of intermediate filament protein belonging to the intermediate filament protein family. The GFAP gene was identified and characterized in 1980. GFAP is expressed primarily by cells in both ventral and dorsal nervous systems during development, including ependymal cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Other human cells such as keratinocytes, Leydig cells, chondrocytes, and osteocytes also express GFAP proteins. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a type III intermediate filament protein belonging to the intermediate filament protein family. These proteins can be found in over 90 percent of all glial cells, including ependymal cells and astrocytes, which develop in the central nervous system in humans.
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GFAP gene is involved in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the glial cells. It is a protein that is present in these cells as they mature. The expression of this gene occurs earlier during development than other cell types. Although it may continue to be expressed at high levels in glial cells, its expression decreases in other CNS cell types. The GFAP protein has three domains, a head domain, rod domain, and tail domain.
GFAP, also known as glial fibrillary acidic protein, is an intermediate filament protein found in humans. GFAP genes can be found on chromosome 17 and have three domains: head, rod and tail. The rod domain differs in its DNA sequence but has a highly conserved protein structure. This is important to note when analyzing data from samples containing GFAP proteins from different species. Furthermore, more studies need to be done on the specific function of GFAP proteins.
BDNF assay is a protein encoded by the BDNF gene in humans. It supports the survival of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. BDNF functions as a neurotransmitter modulator and engages in neuronal plasticity. BDNF protein encourages the growth and maturation (differentiation) of new neurons and synapses. The hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain responsible for learning, memory, and higher thinking, actively host the BDNF biomarker
The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) protein promotes the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses in the brain. It is essential for long-term memory. High BDNF levels are associated with improved cognition and may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and Huntington’s disease.
BDNF is involved in the formation & maintenance of short-term, working memory within our brains. BDNF also supports nerve cell growth and maturation, as well as activity-dependent remodeling of synapses! This protein supports brain function that is critical to healthy memory “forma & mainte”, stimulation “stmlt”, learning processes “lrnprocss”, stress management “strsmanage” and mood control “moodctl”.
BDNF is the “Miracle Grow” for neurons. BDNF supports the growth, sculpting and formation of new synapses. This is how BDNF is involved in memory, learning and higher-order thinking (working memory and executive function¹). These functions are controlled by a specific brain region called the hippocampus. Supporting BDNF promotes healthy brain plasticity. More plasticity means that the brain can be molded by experience – which can lay the groundwork for learning and memory.
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